• D. Cameron, K. P. O’Donnell, P. R. Edwards, M. Peres, K. Lorenz, M. J. Kappers, and M. Boćkowski, “Acceptor state anchoring in gallium nitride,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 116, p. 102105, 2020.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The dual nature of the magnesium acceptor in gallium nitride results in dynamic defect complexes. Europium spectator ions reveal switching between two spectrally unique metastable centres, each corresponding to a particular acceptor state. By ion co-implantation of europium and oxygen into GaN(Mg), we produce, in addition, an anchored state system. In doing so we create an abundance of previously unidentified stable centres which we denote as “Eu0(Ox)”. We introduce a microscopic model for these centres with oxygen substituting for nitrogen in the bridging site.

    @Article{strathprints71643,
    author = {D. Cameron and K. P. O'Donnell and P. R. Edwards and M. Peres and K. Lorenz and M. J. Kappers and M. Bo{\'c}kowski},
    journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
    title = {Acceptor state anchoring in gallium nitride},
    year = {2020},
    month = {February},
    pages = {102105},
    volume = {116},
    abstract = {The dual nature of the magnesium acceptor in gallium nitride results in dynamic defect complexes. Europium spectator ions reveal switching between two spectrally unique metastable centres, each corresponding to a particular acceptor state. By ion co-implantation of europium and oxygen into GaN(Mg), we produce, in addition, an anchored state system. In doing so we create an abundance of previously unidentified stable centres which we denote as "Eu0(Ox)". We introduce a microscopic model for these centres with oxygen substituting for nitrogen in the bridging site.},
    keywords = {rare earth (RE) ions, europium, gallium nitride, Physics, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Condensed Matter Physics},
    url = {https://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/71643/},
    }

  • F. C. -P. Massabuau, J. Bruckbauer, C. Trager-Cowan, and R. A. Oliver, “Microscopy of defects in semiconductors,” in Characaterisation and Control of Defects in Semiconductors, F. Tuomisto, Ed., [S.I.]: IET, 2019.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In this chapter, the authors discuss microscopy techniques that can be useful in addressing defects in semiconductors. They focus on three main families: scanning probe microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. They first address the basic principles of the selected microscopy techniques In discussions of image formation, they elucidate the mechanisms by which defects are typically imaged in each technique. Then, in the latter part of the chapter, they describe some key examples of the application of microscopy to semiconductor materials, addressing both point and extended defects and both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) materials.

    @InCollection{strathprints70802,
    author = {Fabien C.-P. Massabuau and Jochen Bruckbauer and Carol Trager-Cowan and Rachel A. Oliver},
    title = {Microscopy of defects in semiconductors},
    booktitle = {Characaterisation and Control of Defects in Semiconductors},
    publisher = {IET},
    year = {2019},
    editor = {Filip Tuomisto},
    series = {Materials, Circuits and Devices},
    address = {[S.I.]},
    month = {September},
    abstract = {In this chapter, the authors discuss microscopy techniques that can be useful in addressing defects in semiconductors. They focus on three main families: scanning probe microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. They first address the basic principles of the selected microscopy techniques In discussions of image formation, they elucidate the mechanisms by which defects are typically imaged in each technique. Then, in the latter part of the chapter, they describe some key examples of the application of microscopy to semiconductor materials, addressing both point and extended defects and both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) materials.},
    keywords = {microscopy, cathodoluminescence, atomic force microscopy, image formation, point defects, scanning electron microscopy, Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics},
    url = {https://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/70802/},
    }

  • F. C-P. Massabuau, M. K. Horton, E. Pearce, S. Hammersley, P. Chen, M. S. Zielinski, T. Weatherley, G. Divitini, P. R. Edwards, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, M. A. Moram, C. J. Humphreys, P. Dawson, and R. A. Oliver, “Optical and structural properties of dislocations in InGaN,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 125, p. 165701, 2019.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Threading dislocations in thick layers of InₓGa₁₋ₓN (5% < x < 15%) have been investigated by means of cathodoluminescence, time-resolved cathodoluminescence and molecular dynamics. We show that indium atoms segregate near dislocations in all the samples. This promotes the formation of In-N-In chains and atomic condensates which localize carriers and hinder non-radiative recombination at dislocations. We note however that the dark halo surrounding the dislocations in the cathodoluminescence image becomes increasingly pronounced as the indium fraction of the sample increases. Using transmission electron microscopy, we attribute the dark halo to a region of lower indium content formed below the facet of the V-shaped pit that terminates the dislocation in low composition samples (x < 12%). For x > 12%, the facets of the V-defect featured dislocation bundles instead of the low indium fraction region. In this sample the origin of the dark halo may relate to a compound effect of the dislocation bundles, of a variation of surface potential and perhaps of an increase in carrier diffusion length.

    @Article{strathprints67565,
    author = {F.C-P. Massabuau and M.K. Horton and E. Pearce and S. Hammersley and P. Chen and M.S. Zielinski and T. Weatherley and G. Divitini and P.R. Edwards and M.J. Kappers and C. McAleese and M.A. Moram and C.J. Humphreys and P. Dawson and R.A. Oliver},
    title = {Optical and structural properties of dislocations in InGaN},
    journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {125},
    pages = {165701},
    month = {April},
    abstract = {Threading dislocations in thick layers of InₓGa₁₋ₓN (5% < x < 15%) have been investigated by means of cathodoluminescence, time-resolved cathodoluminescence and molecular dynamics. We show that indium atoms segregate near dislocations in all the samples. This promotes the formation of In-N-In chains and atomic condensates which localize carriers and hinder non-radiative recombination at dislocations. We note however that the dark halo surrounding the dislocations in the cathodoluminescence image becomes increasingly pronounced as the indium fraction of the sample increases. Using transmission electron microscopy, we attribute the dark halo to a region of lower indium content formed below the facet of the V-shaped pit that terminates the dislocation in low composition samples (x < 12%). For x > 12%, the facets of the V-defect featured dislocation bundles instead of the low indium fraction region. In this sample the origin of the dark halo may relate to a compound effect of the dislocation bundles, of a variation of surface potential and perhaps of an increase in carrier diffusion length.},
    keywords = {indium gallium nitride, cathodoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy, Physics, Physics and Astronomy(all)},
    url = {https://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/67565/}
    }

  • P. R. Edwards, K. P. O’Donnell, A. K. Singh, D. Cameron, K. Lorenz, M. Yamaga, J. H. Leach, M. J. Kappers, and M. Boćkowski, “Hysteretic photochromic switching (HPS) in doubly doped GaN(Mg):Eu–a summary of recent results,” Materials, vol. 11, iss. 10, p. 1800, 2018.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Europium is the most-studied and least-well-understood rare earth ion (REI) dopant in GaN. While attempting to increase the efficiency of red GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by implanting Eu+ into p-type GaN templates, the Strathclyde University group, in collaboration with IST Lisbon and Unipress Warsaw, discovered hysteretic photochromic switching (HPS) in the photoluminescence spectrum of doubly doped GaN(Mg):Eu. Our recent work, summarised in this contribution, has used time-, temperature- and light-induced changes in the Eu intra-4f shell emission spectrum to deduce the microscopic nature of the Mg-Eu defects that form in this material. As well as shedding light on the Mg acceptor in GaN, we propose a possible role for these emission centres in quantum information and computing.

    @Article{strathprints65532,
    author = {Paul R. Edwards and Kevin P. O'Donnell and Akhilesh K. Singh and Douglas Cameron and Katharina Lorenz and Mitsuo Yamaga and Jacob H. Leach and Menno J. Kappers and Michal Bo{\'c}kowski},
    title = {Hysteretic photochromic switching (HPS) in doubly doped GaN(Mg):Eu{--}a summary of recent results},
    journal = {Materials},
    year = {2018},
    volume = {11},
    number = {10},
    pages = {1800},
    month = {September},
    abstract = {Europium is the most-studied and least-well-understood rare earth ion (REI) dopant in GaN. While attempting to increase the efficiency of red GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by implanting Eu+ into p-type GaN templates, the Strathclyde University group, in collaboration with IST Lisbon and Unipress Warsaw, discovered hysteretic photochromic switching (HPS) in the photoluminescence spectrum of doubly doped GaN(Mg):Eu. Our recent work, summarised in this contribution, has used time-, temperature- and light-induced changes in the Eu intra-4f shell emission spectrum to deduce the microscopic nature of the Mg-Eu defects that form in this material. As well as shedding light on the Mg acceptor in GaN, we propose a possible role for these emission centres in quantum information and computing.},
    keywords = {gallium nitride, rare earth ions, europium, photoluminescence, photochromism, qubit, Physics, Materials Science(all), Physics and Astronomy(all)},
    url = {https://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/65532/}
    }

  • A. K. Singh, K. P. O’Donnell, P. R. Edwards, D. Cameron, K. Lorenz, M. J. Kappers, M. Boćkowski, M. Yamaga, and R. Prakash, “Luminescence of Eu³⁺ in GaN(Mg, Eu) : transitions from the ⁵D₁ level,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 111, p. 241105, 2017.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Eu-doped GaN(Mg) exemplifies hysteretic photochromic switching between two configurations, Eu0 and Eu1(Mg), of the same photoluminescent defect. Using above bandgap excitation, we studied the temperature dependence of photoluminescence (TDPL) of transitions from the excited ⁵D₁ level of Eu³⁺ for both configurations of this defect. During sample cooling, ⁵D₁→⁷F₀,₁,₂ transitions of Eu0 manifest themselves at temperatures below ~200 K, while those of Eu1(Mg) appear only during switching. The observed line positions verify crystal field energies of the ⁷F₀,₁,₂ levels. TDPL profiles of ⁵D₁→⁷F₁ and ⁵D₀→7FJ transitions of Eu0 show an onset of observable emission from the ⁵D₁ level coincident with the previously observed, but hitherto unexplained, decrease in the intensity of its ⁵D₀→⁷FJ emission on cooling below 200 K. Hence the ⁵D₀→⁷FJ TDPL anomaly signals a back-up of ⁵D₁ population due to a reduction in phonon-assisted relaxation between ⁵D₁ and ⁵D₀ levels at lower temperatures. We discuss this surprising result in the light of temperature-dependent transient luminescence measurements of Eu0.

    @Article{strathprints62516,
    author = {A.K. Singh and K.P. O'Donnell and P.R. Edwards and D. Cameron and K. Lorenz and M.J. Kappers and M. Bo{\'c}kowski and M. Yamaga and R. Prakash},
    title = {Luminescence of Eu³⁺ in GaN(Mg, Eu) : transitions from the ⁵D₁ level},
    journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
    year = {2017},
    volume = {111},
    pages = {241105},
    month = {November},
    abstract = {Eu-doped GaN(Mg) exemplifies hysteretic photochromic switching between two configurations, Eu0 and Eu1(Mg), of the same photoluminescent defect. Using above bandgap excitation, we studied the temperature dependence of photoluminescence (TDPL) of transitions from the excited ⁵D₁ level of Eu³⁺ for both configurations of this defect. During sample cooling, ⁵D₁→⁷F₀,₁,₂ transitions of Eu0 manifest themselves at temperatures below ~200 K, while those of Eu1(Mg) appear only during switching. The observed line positions verify crystal field energies of the ⁷F₀,₁,₂ levels. TDPL profiles of ⁵D₁→⁷F₁ and ⁵D₀→7FJ transitions of Eu0 show an onset of observable emission from the ⁵D₁ level coincident with the previously observed, but hitherto unexplained, decrease in the intensity of its ⁵D₀→⁷FJ emission on cooling below 200 K. Hence the ⁵D₀→⁷FJ TDPL anomaly signals a back-up of ⁵D₁ population due to a reduction in phonon-assisted relaxation between ⁵D₁ and ⁵D₀ levels at lower temperatures. We discuss this surprising result in the light of temperature-dependent transient luminescence measurements of Eu0.},
    keywords = {photoluminescence, bandgap, temperature, Physics, Physics and Astronomy(all)},
    url = {https://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/62516/}
    }

  • J. T. Griffiths, C. X. Ren, P. -M. Coulon, L. E. D. Boulbar, C. G. Bryce, I. Girgel, A. Howkins, I. Boyd, R. W. Martin, D. W. E. Allsopp, P. A. Shields, C. J. Humphreys, and R. A. Oliver, “Structural impact on the nanoscale optical properties of InGaN core-shell nanorods,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 110, p. 172105, 2017.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    III-nitride core-shell nanorods are promising for the development of high efficiency light emitting diodes and novel optical devices. We reveal the nanoscale optical and structural properties of core-shell InGaN nanorods formed by combined top-down etching and regrowth to achieve non-polar sidewalls with a low density of extended defects. While the luminescence is uniform along the non-polar {1-100} sidewalls, nano-cathodoluminescence shows a sharp reduction in the luminescent intensity at the intersection of the non-polar {1-100} facets. The reduction in the luminescent intensity is accompanied by a reduction in the emission energy localised at the apex of the corners. Correlative compositional analysis reveals an increasing indium content towards the corner except at the apex itself. We propose that the observed variations in the structure and chemistry are responsible for the changes in the optical properties at the corners of the nanorods. The insights revealed by nano-cathodoluminescence will aid in the future development of higher efficiency core-shell nanorods.

    @Article{strathprints60877,
    author = {J. T. Griffiths and C. X. Ren and P.-M. Coulon and E. D. Le Boulbar and C. G. Bryce and I. Girgel and A. Howkins and I. Boyd and R. W. Martin and D. W. E. Allsopp and P. A. Shields and C. J. Humphreys and R. A. Oliver},
    title = {Structural impact on the nanoscale optical properties of InGaN core-shell nanorods},
    journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
    year = {2017},
    volume = {110},
    pages = {172105},
    month = {April},
    abstract = {III-nitride core-shell nanorods are promising for the development of high efficiency light emitting diodes and novel optical devices. We reveal the nanoscale optical and structural properties of core-shell InGaN nanorods formed by combined top-down etching and regrowth to achieve non-polar sidewalls with a low density of extended defects. While the luminescence is uniform along the non-polar {1-100} sidewalls, nano-cathodoluminescence shows a sharp reduction in the luminescent intensity at the intersection of the non-polar {1-100} facets. The reduction in the luminescent intensity is accompanied by a reduction in the emission energy localised at the apex of the corners. Correlative compositional analysis reveals an increasing indium content towards the corner except at the apex itself. We propose that the observed variations in the structure and chemistry are responsible for the changes in the optical properties at the corners of the nanorods. The insights revealed by nano-cathodoluminescence will aid in the future development of higher efficiency core-shell nanorods.},
    keywords = {nanorods, light emitting diodes, nano-cathodoluminescence, nitride semiconductors, quantum confined Stark effect, efficiency droop, Optics. Light, Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)},
    url = {http://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/60877/}
    }

  • S. Magalhães, N. Franco, I. M. Watson, R. W. Martin, K. P. O’Donnell, H. P. D. Schenk, F. Tang, T. C. Sadler, M. J. Kappers, R. A. Oliver, T. Monteiro, T. L. Martin, P. A. J. Bagot, M. P. Moody, E. Alves, and K. Lorenz, “Validity of Vegard’s rule for AlₓIn₁₋ₓN (0.08 < x < 0.28) thin films grown on GaN templates," Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 50, iss. 20, p. 205107, 2017.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In this work, comparative x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) measurements allow a comprehensive characterization of AlₓIn₁₋ₓN thin films grown on GaN. Within the limits of experimental accuracy, and in the compositional range 0.08  <  x <  0.28, the lattice parameters of the alloys generally obey Vegard's rule, varying linearly with the InN fraction. Results are also consistent with the small deviation from linear behaviour suggested by Darakchieva et al (2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 93 261908). However, unintentional incorporation of Ga, revealed by atom probe tomography (APT) at levels below the detection limit for RBS, may also affect the lattice parameters. Furthermore, in certain samples the compositions determined by XRD and RBS differ significantly. This fact, which was interpreted in earlier publications as an indication of a deviation from Vegard's rule, may rather be ascribed to the influence of defects or impurities on the lattice parameters of the alloy. The wide-ranging set of AlₓIn₁₋ₓN films studied allowed furthermore a detailed investigation of the composition leading to lattice-matching of AlₓIn₁₋ₓN/GaN bilayers.

    @Article{strathprints60823,
    author = {S Magalh{\~a}es and N Franco and I M Watson and R W Martin and K P O'Donnell and H P D Schenk and F Tang and T C Sadler and M J Kappers and R A Oliver and T Monteiro and T L Martin and P A J Bagot and M P Moody and E Alves and K Lorenz},
    title = {Validity of Vegard's rule for {AlₓIn₁₋ₓN (0.08 < x < 0.28)} thin films grown on GaN templates},
    journal = {Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics},
    year = {2017},
    volume = {50},
    number = {20},
    pages = {205107},
    month = {April},
    note = {This is an author-created, un-copyedited version of an article accepted for publication in Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. The publisher is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version derived from it. The Version of Record is available online at https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6463/aa69dc},
    abstract = {In this work, comparative x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) measurements allow a comprehensive characterization of AlₓIn₁₋ₓN thin films grown on GaN. Within the limits of experimental accuracy, and in the compositional range 0.08  <  x <  0.28, the lattice parameters of the alloys generally obey Vegard's rule, varying linearly with the InN fraction. Results are also consistent with the small deviation from linear behaviour suggested by Darakchieva et al (2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 93 261908). However, unintentional incorporation of Ga, revealed by atom probe tomography (APT) at levels below the detection limit for RBS, may also affect the lattice parameters. Furthermore, in certain samples the compositions determined by XRD and RBS differ significantly. This fact, which was interpreted in earlier publications as an indication of a deviation from Vegard's rule, may rather be ascribed to the influence of defects or impurities on the lattice parameters of the alloy. The wide-ranging set of AlₓIn₁₋ₓN films studied allowed furthermore a detailed investigation of the composition leading to lattice-matching of AlₓIn₁₋ₓN/GaN bilayers.},
    keywords = {comparative x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry , Vegard's rule, lattice parameters, gallium, thin films, Physics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Acoustics and Ultrasonics, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Condensed Matter Physics},
    url = {http://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/60823/}
    }

  • P. Coulon, S. H. Vajargah, A. Bao, P. R. Edwards, E. D. Le Boulbar, I. Gîrgel, R. W. Martin, C. J. Humphreys, R. A. Oliver, D. W. E. Allsopp, and P. A. Shields, "Evolution of the m-plane quantum well morphology and composition within a GaN/InGaN core-shell structure," Crystal Growth and Design, vol. 17, iss. 2, p. 474–482, 2017.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    GaN/InGaN core-shell nanorods are promising for optoelectronic applications due to the absence of polarization-related electric fields on the sidewalls, a lower defect density, a larger emission volume and strain relaxation at the free surfaces. The core-shell geometry allows the growth of thicker InGaN shell layers, which would benefit the efficiency of light emitting diodes. However, the growth mode of such layers by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy is poorly understood. Through a combination of nanofabrication, epitaxial growth and detailed characterization, this work reveals an evolution in the growth mode of InGaN epitaxial shells, from a two dimensional (2D) growth mode to three dimensional (3D) striated growth without additional line defect formation with increasing layer thickness. Measurements of the indium distribution show fluctuations along the {\ensuremath{<}}10-10{\ensuremath{>}} directions, with low and high indium composition associated with the 2D and 3D growth modes, respectively. Atomic steps at the GaN/InGaN core-shell interface were observed to occur with a similar frequency as quasi-periodic indium fluctuations along [0001] observed within the 2D layer, to provide evidence that the resulting local strain relief at the steps acts as the trigger for a change of growth mode by elastic relaxation. This study demonstrates that misfit dislocation generation during the growth of wider InGaN shell layers can be avoided by using pre-etched GaN nanorods. Significantly, this enables the growth of absorption-based devices and light-emitting diodes with emissive layers wide enough to mitigate efficiency droop.

    @Article{strathprints59627,
    author = {Coulon, Pierre-Marie and Shahrzad Hosseini Vajargah and An Bao and Paul R. Edwards and Le Boulbar, Emmanuel D. and Ionut G{\^i}rgel and Robert W. Martin and Colin J. Humphreys and Rachel A. Oliver and Duncan W. E. Allsopp and Philip A. Shields},
    title = {Evolution of the m-plane quantum well morphology and composition within a {GaN/InGaN} core-shell structure},
    journal = {Crystal Growth and Design},
    year = {2017},
    volume = {17},
    number = {2},
    pages = {474--482},
    month = {February},
    abstract = {GaN/InGaN core-shell nanorods are promising for optoelectronic applications due to the absence of polarization-related electric fields on the sidewalls, a lower defect density, a larger emission volume and strain relaxation at the free surfaces. The core-shell geometry allows the growth of thicker InGaN shell layers, which would benefit the efficiency of light emitting diodes. However, the growth mode of such layers by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy is poorly understood. Through a combination of nanofabrication, epitaxial growth and detailed characterization, this work reveals an evolution in the growth mode of InGaN epitaxial shells, from a two dimensional (2D) growth mode to three dimensional (3D) striated growth without additional line defect formation with increasing layer thickness. Measurements of the indium distribution show fluctuations along the {\ensuremath{<}}10-10{\ensuremath{>}} directions, with low and high indium composition associated with the 2D and 3D growth modes, respectively. Atomic steps at the GaN/InGaN core-shell interface were observed to occur with a similar frequency as quasi-periodic indium fluctuations along [0001] observed within the 2D layer, to provide evidence that the resulting local strain relief at the steps acts as the trigger for a change of growth mode by elastic relaxation. This study demonstrates that misfit dislocation generation during the growth of wider InGaN shell layers can be avoided by using pre-etched GaN nanorods. Significantly, this enables the growth of absorption-based devices and light-emitting diodes with emissive layers wide enough to mitigate efficiency droop.},
    keywords = {nanorod, core-shell, InGaN, m-plane, morphology, AFM, TEM, EDX, nanofabrication, epitaxial growth, Chemistry, Physics, Materials Science(all), Chemistry(all), Condensed Matter Physics},
    url = {http://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/59627/}
    }

  • A. K. Singh, K. P. O'Donnell, P. R. Edwards, K. Lorenz, M. J. Kappers, and M. Boćkowski, "Hysteretic photochromic switching of Eu-Mg defects in GaN links the shallow transient and deep ground states of the Mg acceptor," Scientific Reports, vol. 7, p. 41982, 2017.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Although p-type activation of GaN by Mg underpins a mature commercial technology, the nature of the Mg acceptor in GaN is still controversial. Here, we use implanted Eu as a `spectator ion' to probe the lattice location of Mg in doubly doped GaN(Mg):Eu. Photoluminescence spectroscopy of this material exemplifies hysteretic photochromic switching (HPS) between two configurations, Eu0 and Eu1(Mg), of the same Eu-Mg defect, with a hyperbolic time dependence on `switchdown' from Eu0 to Eu1(Mg). The sample temperature and the incident light intensity at 355 nm tune the characteristic switching time over several orders of magnitude, from less than a second at 12.5 K, ~100 mW/cm2 to (an estimated) several hours at 50 K, 1 mW/cm². Linking the distinct Eu-Mg defect configurations with the shallow transient and deep ground states of the Mg acceptor in the Lany-Zunger model, we determine the energy barrier between the states to be 27.7(4) meV, in good agreement with the predictions of theory. The experimental results further suggest that at low temperatures holes in deep ground states are localized on N atoms axially bonded to Mg acceptors.

    @Article{strathprints59279,
    author = {A. K. Singh and K. P. O'Donnell and P. R. Edwards and K. Lorenz and M. J. Kappers and M. Bo{\'c}kowski},
    title = {Hysteretic photochromic switching of {Eu-Mg} defects in {GaN} links the shallow transient and deep ground states of the {Mg} acceptor},
    journal = {Scientific Reports},
    year = {2017},
    volume = {7},
    pages = {41982},
    month = {February},
    abstract = {Although p-type activation of GaN by Mg underpins a mature commercial technology, the nature of the Mg acceptor in GaN is still controversial. Here, we use implanted Eu as a `spectator ion' to probe the lattice location of Mg in doubly doped GaN(Mg):Eu. Photoluminescence spectroscopy of this material exemplifies hysteretic photochromic switching (HPS) between two configurations, Eu0 and Eu1(Mg), of the same Eu-Mg defect, with a hyperbolic time dependence on `switchdown' from Eu0 to Eu1(Mg). The sample temperature and the incident light intensity at 355 nm tune the characteristic switching time over several orders of magnitude, from less than a second at 12.5 K, ~100 mW/cm2 to (an estimated) several hours at 50 K, 1 mW/cm². Linking the distinct Eu-Mg defect configurations with the shallow transient and deep ground states of the Mg acceptor in the Lany-Zunger model, we determine the energy barrier between the states to be 27.7(4) meV, in good agreement with the predictions of theory. The experimental results further suggest that at low temperatures holes in deep ground states are localized on N atoms axially bonded to Mg acceptors.},
    keywords = {photoluminescence spectroscopy, hysteretic photochromic switching, Lany-Zunger model, energy barrier, shallow transient state, deep ground state, acceptor state, Physics, Physics and Astronomy(all)},
    url = {http://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/59279/}
    }

  • K. P. O'Donnell, P. R. Edwards, M. Yamaga, K. Lorenz, M. J. Kappers, and M. Boćkowski, "Crystalfield symmetries of luminescent Eu³⁺ centers in GaN : the importance of the ⁵D₀ to ⁷F₁ transition," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 108, iss. 2, p. 22102, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Eu-doped GaN is a promising material with potential application not only in optoelectronics but also in magneto-optical and quantum optical devices ?beyond the light emitting diode?. Its interesting spectroscopy is unfortunately complicated by spectral overlaps due to ?site multiplicity?, the existence in a given sample of multiple composite centers in which Eu ions associate with intrinsic or extrinsic defects. We show here that elementary crystalfield analysis of the 5D0 to 7F1 transition can critically distinguish such sites. Hence, we find that the center involved in the hysteretic photochromic switching (HPS) observed in GaN(Mg):Eu, proposed as the basis of a new solid state qubit material, is not in fact Eu1, as previously reported, but a related defect, Eu1(Mg). Furthermore, the decomposition of the crystalfield distortions of Eu0, Eu1(Mg) and Eu1 into axial and non-axial components strongly suggests reasonable microscopic models for the defects themselves.

    @Article{strathprints55347,
    author = {K. P. O'Donnell and P. R. Edwards and M. Yamaga and K. Lorenz and M. J. Kappers and M. Bo{\'c}kowski},
    title = {Crystalfield symmetries of luminescent {Eu³⁺} centers in {GaN} : the importance of the {⁵D₀} to {⁷F₁} transition},
    journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {108},
    number = {2},
    pages = {022102},
    month = {January},
    abstract = {Eu-doped GaN is a promising material with potential application not only in optoelectronics but also in magneto-optical and quantum optical devices ?beyond the light emitting diode?. Its interesting spectroscopy is unfortunately complicated by spectral overlaps due to ?site multiplicity?, the existence in a given sample of multiple composite centers in which Eu ions associate with intrinsic or extrinsic defects. We show here that elementary crystalfield analysis of the 5D0 to 7F1 transition can critically distinguish such sites. Hence, we find that the center involved in the hysteretic photochromic switching (HPS) observed in GaN(Mg):Eu, proposed as the basis of a new solid state qubit material, is not in fact Eu1, as previously reported, but a related defect, Eu1(Mg). Furthermore, the decomposition of the crystalfield distortions of Eu0, Eu1(Mg) and Eu1 into axial and non-axial components strongly suggests reasonable microscopic models for the defects themselves.},
    keywords = {crystal defects, III-V semiconductors, visible spectra, rare earth ions, emission spectra, Physics, Condensed Matter Physics, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials},
    url = {http://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/55347/}
    }

  • C. X. Ren, B. Rouet-Leduc, J. T. Griffiths, E. Bohacek, M. J. Wallace, P. R. Edwards, M. A. Hopkins, D. W. E. Allsopp, M. J. Kappers, R. W. Martin, and R. A. Oliver, "Analysis of defect-related inhomogeneous electroluminescence in InGaN/GaN QW LEDs," Superlattices and Microstructures, vol. 99, p. 118–124, 2016.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The inhomogeneous electroluminescence (EL) of InGaN/GaN quantum well light emitting diode structures was investigated in this study. Electroluminescence hyperspectral images showed that inhomogeneities in the form of bright spots exhibited spectrally blue-shifted and broadened emission. Scanning electron microscopy combined with cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) was used to identify hexagonal pits at the centre of approximately 20\% of these features. Scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDX) indicated there may be p-doped AlGaN within the active region caused by the presence of the pit. Weak beam dark-field TEM (WBDF-TEM) revealed the presence of bundles of dislocations associated with the pit, suggesting the surface features which cause the inhomogeneous EL may occur at coalescence boundaries, supported by trends in the number of features observed across the wafer.

    @Article{strathprints56455,
    author = {C.X. Ren and B. Rouet-Leduc and J.T. Griffiths and E. Bohacek and M.J. Wallace and P.R. Edwards and M.A. Hopkins and D.W.E. Allsopp and M.J. Kappers and R.W. Martin and R.A. Oliver},
    title = {Analysis of defect-related inhomogeneous electroluminescence in {InGaN/GaN QW LED}s},
    journal = {Superlattices and Microstructures},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {99},
    pages = {118--124},
    abstract = {The inhomogeneous electroluminescence (EL) of InGaN/GaN quantum well light emitting diode structures was investigated in this study. Electroluminescence hyperspectral images showed that inhomogeneities in the form of bright spots exhibited spectrally blue-shifted and broadened emission. Scanning electron microscopy combined with cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) was used to identify hexagonal pits at the centre of approximately 20\% of these features. Scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDX) indicated there may be p-doped AlGaN within the active region caused by the presence of the pit. Weak beam dark-field TEM (WBDF-TEM) revealed the presence of bundles of dislocations associated with the pit, suggesting the surface features which cause the inhomogeneous EL may occur at coalescence boundaries, supported by trends in the number of features observed across the wafer.},
    keywords = {semiconductor, LED, defect, electroluminescence, Physics, Physics and Astronomy(all)},
    url = {http://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/56455/}
    }

  • M. J. Wallace, P. R. Edwards, M. J. Kappers, M. A. Hopkins, F. Oehler, S. Sivaraya, R. A. Oliver, C. J. Humphreys, D. W. E. Allsopp, and R. W. Martin, "Effect of the barrier growth mode on the luminescence and conductivity micron scale uniformity of InGaN light emitting diodes," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 117, iss. 11, p. 115705, 2015.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In this paper we present a combined cathodoluminescence and electron beam induced current study of the optical and electrical properties of InGaN LEDs grown using different active region growth methods. In one device, both the quantum wells and quantum barriers were deposited at their optimum temperatures (2T) whereas in the other device, each barrier was grown in a two step process, with the first few nanometers at a lower temperature (Q2T). It was found that, in the Q2T sample, small micron scale domains of lower emission intensity correlate strongly to a lower EBIC signal, whereas in the 2T sample which has a more uniform emission pattern and an anti-correlation exists between CL emission intensity and EBIC signal.

    @Article{strathprints52285,
    author = {M. J. Wallace and P. R. Edwards and M. J. Kappers and M. A. Hopkins and F. Oehler and S. Sivaraya and R. A. Oliver and C. J. Humphreys and D. W. E. Allsopp and R. W. Martin},
    title = {Effect of the barrier growth mode on the luminescence and conductivity micron scale uniformity of {InGaN} light emitting diodes},
    journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {117},
    number = {11},
    pages = {115705},
    abstract = {In this paper we present a combined cathodoluminescence and electron beam induced current study of the optical and electrical properties of InGaN LEDs grown using different active region growth methods. In one device, both the quantum wells and quantum barriers were deposited at their optimum temperatures (2T) whereas in the other device, each barrier was grown in a two step process, with the first few nanometers at a lower temperature (Q2T). It was found that, in the Q2T sample, small micron scale domains of lower emission intensity correlate strongly to a lower EBIC signal, whereas in the 2T sample which has a more uniform emission pattern and an anti-correlation exists between CL emission intensity and EBIC signal.},
    keywords = {cathodoluminescence, light emitting diode, electron beams, Physics, Physics and Astronomy(all)},
    url = {http://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/52285/}
    }

  • C. Trager-Cowan, G. Naresh-Kumar, N. Allehiani, S. Kraeusel, B. Hourahine, S. Vespucci, D. Thomson, J. Bruckbauer, G. Kusch, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, C. Mauder, A. P. Day, A. Winkelmann, A. Vilalta-Clemente, A. J. Wilkinson, P. J. Parbrook, M. J. Kappers, M. A. Moram, R. A. Oliver, C. J. Humphreys, P. Shields, L. E. D. Boulbar, D. Maneuski, V. O'Shea, and K. P. Mingard, "Electron channeling contrast imaging of defects in III-nitride semiconductors," Microscopy and Microanalysis, vol. 20, iss. S3, p. 1024–1025, 2014.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]
    @Article{strathprints49409,
    author = {C. Trager-Cowan and G. Naresh-Kumar and N. Allehiani and S. Kraeusel and B. Hourahine and S. Vespucci and D. Thomson and J. Bruckbauer and G. Kusch and P. R. Edwards and R. W. Martin and C. Mauder and A. P. Day and A. Winkelmann and A. Vilalta-Clemente and A. J. Wilkinson and P. J. Parbrook and M. J. Kappers and M. A. Moram and R. A. Oliver and C. J. Humphreys and P. Shields and E. D. Le Boulbar and D. Maneuski and V. O'Shea and K. P. Mingard},
    title = {Electron channeling contrast imaging of defects in {III}-nitride semiconductors},
    journal = {Microscopy and Microanalysis},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {20},
    number = {S3},
    pages = {1024--1025},
    month = {August},
    keywords = {Physics, Instrumentation},
    url = {http://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/49409/}
    }

  • K. P. O'Donnell, P. R. Edwards, M. J. Kappers, K. Lorenz, E. J. Alves, and M. X. Boćkowski, "Europium-doped GaN(Mg) : beyond the limits of the light-emitting diode," Physica Status Solidi C, vol. 11, iss. 3–4, p. 662–665, 2014.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Rare-earth doped III-N semiconductors have been studied for decades on account of their possible application in visible light-emitting diodes (LED) with built-in utility as red (e.g. Eu), green (Er) and blue (Tm) monochromatic sources (O'Donnell and Dierolf (eds.), Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 124 (Springer, Dordrecht, 2010) [1]). However, to date, no commercial devices have been introduced on the basis of these materials. Recently, we discovered thermally activated hysteresis in the emission spectrum of p-type GaN thin films that were co-doped with Mg and Eu (O'Donnell et al., Proc. ICPS31, Zurich, July 2012 [2]). We have also reported an unexpected Zeeman splitting and induced magnetic moment of Eu3+ ions in GaN (Kachkanov et al., Scientific Rep. 2, 969 (2012) and MRS Proc. 1290?i03?06 (2011) [3, 4]). These findings encourage speculation on taking the study of RE-doped III-N beyond the limited goal of improving LED efficiency into the realm of novel magneto-optic and quantum-optical devices. In particular we will describe in this presentation the spectroscopy of ion-implanted and annealed GaN(Mg): Eu samples and the possible exploitation of the Mg acceptor in GaN as a qubit.

    @Article{strathprints47513,
    author = {K.P. O'Donnell and P.R. Edwards and M.J. Kappers and K. Lorenz and E.J. Alves and M.X. Bo{\'c}kowski},
    title = {Europium-doped {GaN(Mg)} : beyond the limits of the light-emitting diode},
    journal = {Physica Status Solidi C},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {11},
    number = {3--4},
    pages = {662--665},
    month = {April},
    abstract = {Rare-earth doped III-N semiconductors have been studied for decades on account of their possible application in visible light-emitting diodes (LED) with built-in utility as red (e.g. Eu), green (Er) and blue (Tm) monochromatic sources (O'Donnell and Dierolf (eds.), Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 124 (Springer, Dordrecht, 2010) [1]). However, to date, no commercial devices have been introduced on the basis of these materials. Recently, we discovered thermally activated hysteresis in the emission spectrum of p-type GaN thin films that were co-doped with Mg and Eu (O'Donnell et al., Proc. ICPS31, Zurich, July 2012 [2]). We have also reported an unexpected Zeeman splitting and induced magnetic moment of Eu3+ ions in GaN (Kachkanov et al., Scientific Rep. 2, 969 (2012) and MRS Proc. 1290?i03?06 (2011) [3, 4]). These findings encourage speculation on taking the study of RE-doped III-N beyond the limited goal of improving LED efficiency into the realm of novel magneto-optic and quantum-optical devices. In particular we will describe in this presentation the spectroscopy of ion-implanted and annealed GaN(Mg): Eu samples and the possible exploitation of the Mg acceptor in GaN as a qubit.},
    keywords = {GaN, rare earth doping, luminescence hysteresis, qubit, Physics, Condensed Matter Physics},
    url = {http://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/47513/}
    }

  • J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, S. Sahonta, F. C-P. Massabuau, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, R. A. Oliver, and R. W. Martin, "Cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of trench-like defects in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures," Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 47, iss. 13, p. 135107, 2014.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Optoelectronic devices based on the III-nitride system exhibit remarkably good optical efficiencies despite suffering from a large density of defects. In this work we use cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging to study InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Different types of trench defects with varying trench width, namely wide or narrow trenches forming closed loops and open loops, are investigated in the same hyperspectral CL measurement. A strong redshift (90 meV) and intensity increase of the MQW emission is demonstrated for regions enclosed by wide trenches, whereas those within narrower trenches only exhibit a small redshift (10 meV) and a slight reduction of intensity compared with the defect-free surrounding area. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that some trench defects consist of a raised central area, which is caused by an increase of about 40\% in the thickness of the InGaN wells. The causes of the changes in luminescences are also discussed in relation to TEM results identifying the underlying structure of the defect. Understanding these defects and their emission characteristics is important for further enhancement and development of light-emitting diodes.

    @Article{strathprints47167,
    author = {Jochen Bruckbauer and Paul R Edwards and Suman-Lata Sahonta and Fabien C-P Massabuau and Menno J Kappers and Colin J Humphreys and Rachel A Oliver and Robert W Martin},
    title = {Cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging of trench-like defects in {InGaN/GaN} quantum well structures},
    journal = {Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {47},
    number = {13},
    pages = {135107},
    month = {March},
    abstract = {Optoelectronic devices based on the III-nitride system exhibit remarkably good optical efficiencies despite suffering from a large density of defects. In this work we use cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging to study InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Different types of trench defects with varying trench width, namely wide or narrow trenches forming closed loops and open loops, are investigated in the same hyperspectral CL measurement. A strong redshift (90 meV) and intensity increase of the MQW emission is demonstrated for regions enclosed by wide trenches, whereas those within narrower trenches only exhibit a small redshift (10 meV) and a slight reduction of intensity compared with the defect-free surrounding area. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that some trench defects consist of a raised central area, which is caused by an increase of about 40\% in the thickness of the InGaN wells. The causes of the changes in luminescences are also discussed in relation to TEM results identifying the underlying structure of the defect. Understanding these defects and their emission characteristics is important for further enhancement and development of light-emitting diodes.},
    keywords = {cathodoluminescence , hyperspectral imaging, trench-like defects, nGaN/GaN , quantum well structures, Physics, Solid state physics. Nanoscience, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Acoustics and Ultrasonics, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Condensed Matter Physics},
    url = {http://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/47167/}
    }

  • G. Naresh-Kumar, J. Bruckbauer, P. R. Edwards, S. Kraeusel, B. Hourahine, R. W. Martin, M. J. Kappers, M. A. Moram, S. Lovelock, R. A. Oliver, C. J. Humphreys, and C. Trager-Cowan, "Coincident electron channeling and cathodoluminescence studies of threading dislocations in GaN," Microscopy and Microanalysis, vol. 20, iss. 1, p. 55–60, 2014.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    We combine two scanning electron microscopy techniques to investigate the influence of dislocations on the light emission from nitride semiconductors. Combining electron channeling contrast imaging and cathodoluminescence imaging enables both the structural and luminescence properties of a sample to be investigated without structural damage to the sample. The electron channeling contrast image is very sensitive to distortions of the crystal lattice, resulting in individual threading dislocations appearing as spots with black?white contrast. Dislocations giving rise to nonradiative recombination are observed as black spots in the cathodoluminescence image. Comparison of the images from exactly the same micron-scale region of a sample demonstrates a one-to-one correlation between the presence of single threading dislocations and resolved dark spots in the cathodoluminescence image. In addition, we have also obtained an atomic force microscopy image from the same region of the sample, which confirms that both pure edge dislocations and those with a screw component (i.e., screw and mixed dislocations) act as nonradiative recombination centers for the Si-doped c-plane GaN thin film investigated.

    @article{strathprints46655,
    volume = {20},
    number = {1},
    month = {February},
    author = {G. Naresh-Kumar and J. Bruckbauer and P. R. Edwards and S. Kraeusel and B. Hourahine and R. W. Martin and M. J. Kappers and M. A. Moram and S. Lovelock and R. A. Oliver and C. J. Humphreys and C. Trager-Cowan},
    title = {Coincident electron channeling and cathodoluminescence studies of threading dislocations in GaN},
    journal = {Microscopy and Microanalysis},
    pages = {55--60},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {electron channeling, cathodoluminescence studies, threading, dislocations, GaN, Instrumentation},
    url = {http://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/46655/},
    abstract = {We combine two scanning electron microscopy techniques to investigate the influence of dislocations on the light emission from nitride semiconductors. Combining electron channeling contrast imaging and cathodoluminescence imaging enables both the structural and luminescence properties of a sample to be investigated without structural damage to the sample. The electron channeling contrast image is very sensitive to distortions of the crystal lattice, resulting in individual threading dislocations appearing as spots with black?white contrast. Dislocations giving rise to nonradiative recombination are observed as black spots in the cathodoluminescence image. Comparison of the images from exactly the same micron-scale region of a sample demonstrates a one-to-one correlation between the presence of single threading dislocations and resolved dark spots in the cathodoluminescence image. In addition, we have also obtained an atomic force microscopy image from the same region of the sample, which confirms that both pure edge dislocations and those with a screw component (i.e., screw and mixed dislocations) act as nonradiative recombination centers for the Si-doped c-plane GaN thin film investigated.}
    }

  • M. J. Wallace, P. R. Edwards, M. J. Kappers, M. A. Hopkins, F. Oehler, S. Sivaraya, D. W. E. Allsopp, R. A. Oliver, C. J. Humphreys, and R. W. Martin, "Bias dependence and correlation of the cathodoluminescence and electron beam induced current from an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 116, iss. 3, p. 33105, 2014.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Micron-scale mapping has been employed to study a contacted InGaN/GaN LED using combined electroluminescence (EL), cathodoluminescence (CL), and electron beam induced current (EBIC). Correlations between parameters, such as the EBIC and CL intensity, were studied as a function of applied bias. The CL and EBIC maps reveal small areas, 2?10 {\ensuremath{\mu}}m in size, which have increased nonradiative recombination rate and/or a lower conductivity. The CL emission from these spots is blue shifted, by 30?40 meV. Increasing the reverse bias causes the size of the spots to decrease, due to competition between in-plane diffusion and drift in the growth direction. EL mapping shows large bright areas ({$\sim$}100 {\ensuremath{\mu}}m) which also have increased EBIC, indicating domains of increased conductivity in the p and/or n-GaN.

    @Article{strathprints48986,
    author = {M. J. Wallace and P. R. Edwards and M. J. Kappers and M. A. Hopkins and F. Oehler and S. Sivaraya and D. W. E. Allsopp and R. A. Oliver and C. J. Humphreys and R. W. Martin},
    title = {Bias dependence and correlation of the cathodoluminescence and electron beam induced current from an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode},
    journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {116},
    number = {3},
    pages = {033105},
    abstract = {Micron-scale mapping has been employed to study a contacted InGaN/GaN LED using combined electroluminescence (EL), cathodoluminescence (CL), and electron beam induced current (EBIC). Correlations between parameters, such as the EBIC and CL intensity, were studied as a function of applied bias. The CL and EBIC maps reveal small areas, 2?10 {\ensuremath{\mu}}m in size, which have increased nonradiative recombination rate and/or a lower conductivity. The CL emission from these spots is blue shifted, by 30?40 meV. Increasing the reverse bias causes the size of the spots to decrease, due to competition between in-plane diffusion and drift in the growth direction. EL mapping shows large bright areas ({$\sim$}100 {\ensuremath{\mu}}m) which also have increased EBIC, indicating domains of increased conductivity in the p and/or n-GaN.},
    keywords = {bias dependence , cathodoluminescence, electron beam induced current, InGaN/GaN , micron-scale mapping, light emitting diode, electroluminescence, Optics. Light, Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics},
    url = {http://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/48986/}
    }

  • E. Taylor, F. Fang, F. Oehler, P. R. Edwards, M. J. Kappers, K. Lorenz, E. Alves, C. McAleese, C. J. Humphreys, and R. W. Martin, "Composition and luminescence studies of InGaN epilayers grown at different hydrogen flow rates," Semiconductor Science and Technology, vol. 28, iss. 6, p. 65011, 2013.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Indium gallium nitride (In(x)Ga(1-x)N) is a technologically important material for many optoelectronic devices, including LEDs and solar cells, but it remains a challenge to incorporate high levels of InN into the alloy while maintaining sample quality. A series of InGaN epilayers was grown with different hydrogen flow rates (0-200 sccm) and growth temperatures (680-750 ?C) to obtain various InN fractions and bright emission in the range 390-480 nm. These 160-nm thick epilayers were characterized through several compositional techniques (wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) and cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging. The compositional analysis with the different techniques shows good agreement when taking into account compositional gradients evidenced in these layers. The addition of small amounts of hydrogen to the gas flow at lower growth temperatures is shown to maintain a high surface quality and luminescence homogeneity. This allowed InN fractions of up to {\texttt{\char126}}16\% to be incorporated with minimal peak energy variations over a mapped area while keeping a high material quality.

    @Article{strathprints43861,
    author = {E Taylor and F Fang and F Oehler and P R Edwards and M J Kappers and K Lorenz and E Alves and C McAleese and C J Humphreys and R W Martin},
    title = {Composition and luminescence studies of InGaN epilayers grown at different hydrogen flow rates},
    journal = {Semiconductor Science and Technology},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {28},
    number = {6},
    pages = {065011},
    month = {May},
    abstract = {Indium gallium nitride (In(x)Ga(1-x)N) is a technologically important material for many optoelectronic devices, including LEDs and solar cells, but it remains a challenge to incorporate high levels of InN into the alloy while maintaining sample quality. A series of InGaN epilayers was grown with different hydrogen flow rates (0-200 sccm) and growth temperatures (680-750 ?C) to obtain various InN fractions and bright emission in the range 390-480 nm. These 160-nm thick epilayers were characterized through several compositional techniques (wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) and cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging. The compositional analysis with the different techniques shows good agreement when taking into account compositional gradients evidenced in these layers. The addition of small amounts of hydrogen to the gas flow at lower growth temperatures is shown to maintain a high surface quality and luminescence homogeneity. This allowed InN fractions of up to {\texttt{\char126}}16\% to be incorporated with minimal peak energy variations over a mapped area while keeping a high material quality.},
    keywords = {composition and luminescence studies, InGaN epilayers, hydrogen flow rates, optoelectronic devices, Physics, Materials Chemistry, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Condensed Matter Physics},
    url = {http://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/43861/}
    }

  • A. F. Jarjour, A. M. Green, T. J. Parker, R. A. Taylor, R. A. Oliver, G. A. D. Briggs, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, R. W. Martin, and I. M. Watson, "Two-photon absorption from single InGaN/GaN quantum dots," Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures, vol. 32, iss. 1-2, p. 119–122, 2006.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    We present a study of the time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence properties of single-InGaN/GaN quantum dots (QDs) using two-photon spectroscopy. Two samples containing QDs produced by different growth techniques are examined. We find that two-photon excitation results in the suppression of the emission from the underlying quantum well to which the QDs are coupled and yet relatively strong QD emission is observed. This effect is explained in terms of the enhancement of two-photon absorption in QDs due to the full confinement of carriers. Furthermore, evidence of the presence of excited states is revealed from the two-photon photoluminescence excitation spectra presented in the study.

    @article{strathprints10020,
    volume = {32},
    number = {1-2},
    title = {Two-photon absorption from single InGaN/GaN quantum dots},
    author = {A.F. Jarjour and A.M. Green and T.J. Parker and R.A. Taylor and R.A. Oliver and G.A.D. Briggs and M.J. Kappers and C.J. Humphreys and R.W. Martin and I.M. Watson},
    year = {2006},
    pages = {119--122},
    journal = {Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures},
    keywords = {InGaN, quantum dot, two-photon absorption, photoluminescence, time-resolved, photoluminescence excitation, Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Condensed Matter Physics},
    url = {http://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/10020/},
    abstract = {We present a study of the time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence properties of single-InGaN/GaN quantum dots (QDs) using two-photon spectroscopy. Two samples containing QDs produced by different growth techniques are examined. We find that two-photon excitation results in the suppression of the emission from the underlying quantum well to which the QDs are coupled and yet relatively strong QD emission is observed. This effect is explained in terms of the enhancement of two-photon absorption in QDs due to the full confinement of carriers. Furthermore, evidence of the presence of excited states is revealed from the two-photon photoluminescence excitation spectra presented in the study.}
    }